A surprising number of places have been the site of a redoubt; an earthwork fortifications defended by a ditch and with the spoil thrown up to form a parapet on the interior side.  The fortifications all relied primarily on the use of muskets for their defence and were designed with an attacker similarly armed in mind. (The effective range of a musket was of the order of 80–100 m.) Redoubts were often built on pa sites. Some still exist and can be visited. At least three have been chosen as a location for a church.

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