Papakāinga means ‘nurturing place to return to’ and describes a type of housing development located on multiply-owned Māori or ancestral land. Papakainga, or modern Maori Villages were underway in rural areas as early as the 1980s. Some were built on ancestral lands, a few on marae land. An escalation in the trend this type of housing emerged following the settlement of Treaty Claims, especially amongst progressive Iwi organisations in urban areas, who were more able to access former Social Housing blocks, and development grants. Papakainga are encouraged by government through Te Puni Kokiri, https://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/a-matou-mohiotanga/housing/a-guide-to-papakainga-housing and Kiwibank has made provision for specialised loans.